BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer is the first type of cancer among women. One out of every 8 women is at risk of developing cancer. Breast cancer is the cancer that develops from the cells in the breast tissue. It may originate from any part of the breast tissue.

project

The most common type; ”ductal“ cancers caused by breast canals. ”Lobular“ cancers originating from milk-producing glands are also common. There are also rare types of medullary, tubular and mucinous originating from other tissues.

One out of every 8 women is at risk of developing cancer.

Breast cancer is the cancer that develops from the cells in the breast tissue.

Depending on the disease stage, patient characteristics, and his overall health, treatment options may include one or more of the following: surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy or target-based treatment
Standard treatment methods:

Surgical Treatment

Radiotherapy

Hormonotherapy

Chemotherapy

BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer is the first type of cancer among women.

Risk Factors

The most important risk factors for the development of breast cancer are as follows;

  • Obese or overweight
  • Not doing enough physical activity
  • Alcohol useage
  • First birth after 30 years or no birth
  • Age of first menstruation: Those who see their first menstruation at an early age increase the risk because they will be exposed to estrogen hormone for longer life.
  • Menopause age: Menopause is known as the period when the woman was aborted from the menstruation and her fertility ceased. In advanced age (> 55 years), menopause increases the risk of breast cancer. Here the factor is exposed to estrogen hormone for a long time.
  • Female gender, advanced age
  • A number of genetic changes such as BRCA-1, BRCA-2 mutations
  • Finding a history of breast cancer
  • Radiotherapy of the chest
  • Some benign breast diseases (such as fibroadenoma, papillomatosis, etc.)
  • A family history of breast cancer: for women with breast cancer in the mother, mother relatives, aunt and / or sister , The risk of developing breast cancer is greater than that of the normal population.

Symptoms

  • The most common symptom of breast cancer is a painless, growing mass in the breast. However, very few patients may be accompanied by pain.
  • Rarely, there are skin marks in the breast , including chilblains, skin thickening, swelling, skin irritation or deterioration, and sensitization or introversion of the nipple. Contrary to popular belief, pain and bloody discharge occur in advanced stages.

Diagnosis

  • Early stage breast cancers may not show a significant symptom until they are advanced like in other types of cancer. The most important factor in early diagnosis is to raise awareness of the subject. 
Therefore, it is very important to apply the recommended control programs for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Early diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chances of success and survival. Three basic methods can be used for early diagnosis. These ; self-made breast controls at home (Women are required to examine their breasts each month in the period after the age of 20) In case of any suspicious mass in breast tissue, consult a doctor immediately. In addition, women aged 40-69 should undergo mammography examinations every 2 years

Scanning

  • It is normally recommended to have a breast examination after the age of 20 and to have a doctor's breast examination once a year. For this reason, women should be informed about the disease in the early period. Mammography is recommended every 2 years after age 50. According to the National Cancer Screening Program recommendations, the breast cancer screening protocol in Turkey is listed below.
  • Between the ages 20 and 40 years; Monthly breast self-examination
  • Between the ages of 40-69; Monthly breast self-examination, mammography every two years is required.

The most important factor in early diagnosis is to raise awareness of the subject.

Treatment

Depending on the disease stage, patient characteristics, and his overall health, treatment options may include one or more of the following.

Radiotherapy

Radiation treatment is performed with applying X-rays the breast on breast area and under the armpit, and this used to remove of cancer cells that are may remain after surgery. The most common method is external beam radiation. It is applied for 4-6 weeks after the operation. By using a special linear accelerator, it is irradiated externally, targeting all the breast and sometimes the armpit. The beam is usually given for 5 days a week for 4-6 weeks.

Side effects of radiotherapy;  Most women who underwent treatment suffer from complain of weakness. Breast swelling and feeling of heaviness may occur. The skin in the treated area may take the color of the sunburn. These side effects disappear spontaneously in about a year. With the linear accelerator named TrueBeam STx, which is used in our center, these side effects are minimized by minimizing affecting the healthy tissue.

Chemotherapy

Treatment of cancer cells with lethal drugs. These drugs are administered orally or intravenously and spread throughout the body. Generally, they are given in different combinations as they are more effective when several drugs are given together at the same time. Chemotherapy is given in cures. 4-6 cycles are planned.  The period between Curing is about 3 weeks. This means a total of 3-5 months of total chemotherapy time.

In some cases, in addition to the surgical treatment, it may be necessary to add medication.

In the examinations performed after the surgical treatment in patients, even if there is no cancer in any area, medication may be used as a preventive measure for some time.

This treatment is called adjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used to reduce the size of the tumor and make it suitable for surgery in patients with Stage 3 cancer. One benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the monitoring of the efficacy of the chemotherapy on the tumor. For more information on chemotherapy, please click here.

Hormonotherapy

Some breast cancer cells may be susceptible to estrogen through their hormone receptors. That is, estrogen hormone can cause these cancer cells to grow and increase. The aim of hormone treatment is to prevent the development of cancer by eliminating the effect of estrogen in cancer types that are sensitive to this hormone.

Surgical Treatment

It is usually the first stage of the war against cancer. Treatment for most patients begins with surgical removal of cancerous tissue.Sentinel lymph (guard lymph node) biopsy is performed and the armpit lymph nodes are cleaned if necessary.

Currently, there are several different applications of surgical intervention in the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, there are several different applications of surgical intervention in the treatment of breast cancer. These applications are mainly divided into two main groups as those intended for the protection of the breast and for removal of the entire breast. In the light of the recent medical developments, the removal of the cancerous region and the protection of the breast, and the sampling of armpit lymph nodes provide similar success results for patients and can go home on the same day. Breast reconstruction can be performed by plastic surgery techniques when all of the breast removal is needed.